Promethazine tablets and suppositories are indicated to treat rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic reactions to blood or plasma, dermographism, anaphylactic reactions, sedation, nausea, vomiting, pain, motion sickness, and allergic skin reactions.2,12 Promethazine cough syrup with phenylephrine and codeine is indicated to relieve cough and upper respiratory symptoms, and nasal congestion associated with allergy or the common cold. buy online hi tech
Promethazine is is a histamine H1 antagonist that can be used for it’s ability to induce sedation, reduce pain, and treat allergic reactions. Promethazine’s effects generally last 4-6h but can last up to 12h. Patients should be counselled regarding CNS and respiratory depression, reduce seizure threshold, and bone marrow depression.
Mechanism of action: buy online hi tech
Promethazine is a an antagonist of histamine H1, post-synaptic mesolimbic dopamine, alpha adrenergic, muscarinic, and NMDA receptors.2,8,9 The antihistamine action is used to treat allergic reactions.7 Antagonism of muscarinic and NMDA receptors contribute to its use as a sleep aid, as well as for anxiety and tension. Antagonism of histamine H1, muscarinic, and dopamine receptors in the medullary vomiting center make promethazine useful in the treatment of nausea and vomiting.
The intravenous clearance of promethazine is approximately 1.14L/min. The renal clearance of promethazine is 5.9mL/min and the renal clearance of promethazine sulfoxide is 90.4mL/min.
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The intraperitoneal LD50 in rats is 170mg/kg and in mice is 160mg/kg. The subcutaneous LD50 in rats is 400mg/kg and in mice is 240mg/kg. The oral LD50 in mice is 255mg/kg.
Patients experiencing an overdose of promethazine may present with mild central nervous system and cardiovascular depression, hypotension, respiratory depression, unconciousness, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, extensor-plantar reflexes, convulsions, dry mouth, flushing, gastrointestinal symptoms, and fixed, dilated pupils. Treat overdoses with symptomatic and supportive treatment, which may include activated charcoal, sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, controlled ventilation, diazepam, intravenous fluids, vasopressors, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agents, diphenhydramine, barbiturates, or oxygen